Saturday, 30 November 2013

Asking WH-questions with prepositions in Gujarati

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We have learnt prepositions in this lesson
http://learn-gujarati-from-english.blogspot.com/2013/11/learn-prepositions-in-gujarati-language.html

We have learn WH-words in this lesson.
http://learn-gujarati-from-english.blogspot.in/2013/11/asking-wh-questions-in-gujarati.html

Let's see how preposition can be used along with WH-question words. 
e.g.  "With whom" , "For whom","By when","From where" etc. Here we used "with","for","by" to WH-question words "who","when".

1) Prepositions with "Who"
"Who" is English is કોણ(koN) in Gujarati
Like pronouns, when prepositions are used with કોણ(koN) its form changes.


Word in English
Pronoun in Gujarati
For prepositions 
with 
ની(nI)
For prepositions 
with
ના(nA)
For prepositions 
with
ને (ne)
Who
કોણ 
 (koN )
કોની  (konI )
કોના  (konA )
કોને   (kone  )

With whom -> કોની સાથે ? (konI sAthe )
For whom ?  -> કોને માટે  ? (kone mATe )
Because of whom ? -> કોને કારણે  (kone kAraNe )
Instead of whom -> કોને બદલે  (kone badale )

2) Prepositions with "When"
"When" in English is ક્યારે(kyAre) in Gujarati. It changes to ક્યાર(kyAr) for using prepositions.
Only time related prepositions will be used with it. 

From when -> ક્યાર થી  (kyAra thI )
Till when -> ક્યાર સુધી   (kyAra sudhI  )

3) Prepositions with "Where"
"Where" in English is ક્યાં (kyAM ) in Gujarati. It remains same when using prepositions.
Only place related prepositions will be used with it.
From where -> ક્યાં થી   (kyAM thI  )
Till where -> ક્યાં સુધી  (kyAM sudhI )

4) Prepositions with "What"
"What" in English is શું (shuM ) in Gujarati. Few prepositions can be used as follows :-
For what ? -> શા માટે  ( shA mATe  ) 
In what -> શેમાં (shemAM)
Of what  -> શેની  ( shenI  )

5) For other WH-words it is not natural to use prepositions. Will add examples if I find good examples.


Listen this lesson online at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6xGDl4Cywok

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Cases in Gujarati. વિભક્તિ Vibhakti and વિભક્તિ પ્રત્યય vibhakti prtatyay in Gujarati

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Though I have followed grammar based approach for Gujarati teaching; I have purposely omitted explaining the concept of વિભક્તિ(vibhakti) and વિભક્તિ પ્રત્યય (vibhaktipratyay).

I think it is very complicated to explain and a lot confusing. Because “વિભક્તિ પ્રત્યય” table includes many suffixes which are not used in contemporary language.

    I had read at one place that in modern languages there are less number of cases. And cases were replaced by prepositions in the evolution of languages. e.g. in Sanskrit and in Gujarati there are 7 cases; in German there are 4 cases while in English there are only 2 cases. 

I decided to teach Gujarati in terms of English i.e. prepositions 
e.g. "second vibhakti" is actually preposition "To"
Third vibhakti is preposition "by" as used in pas tense.  etc. 


So please refer lesson related to prepositions
http://learn-gujarati-from-english.blogspot.in/2013/11/prepositions-with-nouns-in-gujarati.html
http://learn-gujarati-from-english.blogspot.in/2013/11/prepositions-with-nouns-in-gujarati.html
http://learn-gujarati-from-english.blogspot.com/2013/12/prepositions-with-verbs-in-gujarati.html
http://learn-gujarati-from-english.blogspot.in/2013/11/saying-my-his-her-in-gujarati.html
http://learn-gujarati-from-english.blogspot.in/2013/11/preposition-to-in-gujarati.html

For more formal details please refer other websites through google search.

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Prepositions with nouns in Gujarati

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In previous lesson we have studied prepositions and how they are used with pronouns. 

http://learn-gujarati-from-english.blogspot.com/2013/11/learn-prepositions-in-gujarati-language.html

Let's see how prepositions are used with noun.

When preposition is used along with a proper noun (name of person or object) noun does not change (unlike pronoun). 

There are two categories of prepositions.


Category 1) Here ના(nA),  ની(nI), ને (ne) etc. is appended to noun. 

across  -> ની પેલેપાર  (nI pelepAr ) 

e.g. across sea ->  સમુદ્રની પેલેપાર  ( samudranI pelepAr )

around -> ની આસપાસ  (nI AsapAs )

e.g around house -> ઘરની આસપાસ  ( gharanI AsapAs  )

Like -> ની જેમ  (nI jem )

Like Kaushik -> કૌશિક્ની જેમ  ( kaushiknI jem  )

Other such prepositions are :-

aside ની બાજુએ  (nI bAjue )
outside ની બહાર  (nI bahAr )
Instead of ને બદલે  (ne badale )
Because of ને કારણે / ને લીધે   (ne kAraNe / ne lIdhe )

Cateory 2) For few prepositions, ના(nA),  ની(nI), ને (ne) etc. are also not used with noun

e.g.

About Kaushik -> કૌશિક વિષે ( kaushik viShe )
Above table -> ટેબલ ઉપર ( Tebal upar )
Against India -> ભારત વિરુદ્ધ ( bhArat viruddh  ) 
With girls -> છોકરીઓ સાથે ( ChokarIo sAthe )
Prior to Sachin ->સચિન પહેલાં ( sachin pahelAM )




As you will read more in Gujarati, you will understand which preposition fall in which category.

When preposition is used with a noun which is related with some pronoun, then form of pronoun also changes.
e.g.
"My house" in Gujarati is "મારું ઘર"(mAruM ghar). 
"In house" in Gujarati is "ઘરમાં"  (gharamAM )
"In my house" in Gujarati is "મારા ઘરમાં"(mArA gharamAM )

See we changed from "મારું"(mAruM) to "મારા"(mArA)

Another example.
Your son -> તારો દીકરો ( tAro dIkaro  )
With son -> દીકરા સાથે (dIkarA sAthe)
With your son -> તારા દીકરા સાથે ( tArA dIkarA sAthe )

So when related object is of masculine or neuter gender, we use the form is denoted in previous lesson as "For pronoun with ના(nA)"
i.e.   મારા (mArA  ), તમારા   (tamArA  ),એના  (enA )  etc. 

If related object is of feminine gender, form is not changed.
e.g.
Your daughter -> તારી દીકરી  ( tArI dIkarI  )
With daughter-> દીકરી સાથે (dIkarI sAthe )
With your daughter -> તારી દીકરી સાથે ( tArI dIkarI sAthe)
It remained "તારી"(tArI)



Listen in this lesson online at
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mRwhHSTh0Eg

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Friday, 29 November 2013

Learn Prepositions in Gujarati Language

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Consider English preposition with”. It is used as with me, with him etc.
“with” in Gujarati  is સાથે  (sAthe)
“with me” --> મારી સાથે ( mArI sAthe 
“with him” --> તેની સાથે  ( tenI sAthe   )

You can observe that preposition in Gujarati comes after noun. So it is rather post-position!!

Also note that while using preposition in English; for “I” we used “Me”; for “He”we used “Him”.

Similarly in Gujarati for હું(huM)  we used મારી (mArI ); For તે ( te ) we used તેની tenI )

This changed forms are called Oblique case form in English.

In Gujarati oblique forms differ depending on preposition. 

e.g. 
“after me” --> મારા પછી ( mArA paChI ) 
“after him” --> તેના પછી  (tenA paChI   )

Here we did not use મારી(mArI ), તેની (tenI) but we used મારા(mArA), 
તેના (tenA

Similarly, 
because of me -> મારે કારણે (mAre kAraNe)
because of him -> તેને કારણે (tene kAraNe)
Here we used મારે(mAre), તેને (tene). 

So below I have divided prepositions in 3 categories. ના(nA) group,  ની(nI) group and ને (ne) group.
And then in second table I have given oblique form of each preposition for each of this category. 


Preposition in English
Preposition  Gujarati
"ના(nA)" Group
about
ના વિષે (nA viShe )
after
ના પછી     (nA paChI    )
Among
ના વચ્ચે  (nA vachche )
Before
ના પહેલા  (nA pahelA )
From /since
ના થી   (nA thI  )
in
ના માં    (nA mAM   )
till / untill
ના સુધી  (nA sudhI )
without
ના સિવાય/ ના વગર  (nA sivAy/ nA vagar )
According to
ના મુજબ   (nA mujab  )
Through
ના મારફત  (nA mAraphat )
towards
ના તરફ /  (nA taraph /
On behalf of
ના વતી  (nA vatI )
"ની(nI)" Group
Above
ની ઉપર        (nI upar )
across
ની પેલેપાર  (nI pelepAr )
against
ની વિરુદ્ધ        (nI viruddh )
Around
ની આસપાસ  (nI AsapAs )
As/ like
ની જેમ  (nI jem )
aside
ની બાજુએ  (nI bAjue )
below
ની નીચે  (nI nIche )
outside
ની બહાર  (nI bahAr )
behind
ની પાછળ  (nI pAChaL )
Near /close to
ની પાસે  (nI pAse )
with
ની સાથે / ની જોડે  
(nI sAthe / nI joDe )
In front of
ની સામે / ની આગળ  
(nI sAme / nI AgaL )
Prior to
ની પહેલાં   (nI pahelAM  )
towards
ની દિશામાં (nI dishAmAM )
"ને(ne)" Group
Because of
ને કારણે / ને લીધે   
(ne kAraNe / ne lIdhe )
for
ને માટે  (ne mATe )
Instead of
ને બદલે  (ne badale )
Other
during
દરમિયાન  (daramiyAn )


Pronoun in English
Pronoun in Gujarati
Form with preposition 
with ની(nI)
Form with preposition  with
ના(nA)
Form with preposition  with
ને (ne)
I
હું (huM)
મારી (mArI  )
મારા (mArA  )
મારે  (mAre  )
we
અમે (ame)
અમારી  (amArI )
અમારા  (amArA )
અમારે(amAre )
we
( listener including)
આપણે(ApaNe)
આપણી (ApaNI)
આપણા  (ApaNA )
આપણે   (ApaNe )
You (singular)
તું(tuM)
તારી  (tArI )
તારા  (tArA )
તારે  (tAre )
You (plural)
તમે(tame)
તમારી   
 (tamArI )
તમારા   
 (tamArA)
તમારે  
(tamAre  )
He /She /It
(when person or
thing is near )
/ This (m./f/n.)


(A)
આની  (AnI  )
આના  (AnA  )
આને   (Ane  )
He /She /It
(when person or
thing is far )
/ That (m./f./n.)
  (e)


તે (te)
એની  (enI )


તેની  (tenI )
એના  (enA )


તેના  (tenA ) 

એને  (ene )



તેને  (tene )

They / Those / These
(for person )
એ(e)



તેઓ(teo)

એમની (emanI)



તેઓની/તેમની    (teonI/temanI )
એમના (emanA)



તેઓના/તેમના  
(teonA /temanA)
એમને (emane )



તેઓને/તેમને  
(teone/temane)
They / Those / These
(for nonliving thing)

  (e)
એની  (enI )
એના  (enA )
એને   (ene  )


Examples:-

About me                    મારા વિષે (mArA viShe )
After us                      અમારા પછી/આપણા પછી  (amArA paChI/ApaNA paChI )
aside you (singular)      તારી બાજુએ  (tArI bAjue )
before you (plural )       તમારાં પહેલા  (tamArAM pahelA )
below him                   એની નીચે  (enI nIche )                           
after him                     એના પછી  (enA paChI )
for her                        એને માટે  (ene mATe )

from it                        એના થી  (enA thI )
Preposition થી(thI) can also be written joined with pronoun.  e.g. 
એનાથી  (enAthI) મારાથી(mArAthI), તારાથી (tArAthI )



Unlike other prepositions, preposition માં(mAM) is joined with pronoun form and not written as separate word
in them                       તેનામાં  (tenAmAM )


Listen in this lesson online at
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q3dd9j7xxLg
                    

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