Monday, 27 January 2014

Tips to Learn Gujarati (rather any new language)

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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Gujarati. Learn Gujarati grammar and many aspects Gujarati language online.
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Tips to Learn Gujarati

Many users of this blog asked me about tips to Learn Gujarati fast. So I would like to share my thoughts about it. These are the things which I followed when I learnt Tamil and Gujarati myself. I learnt basics of these language through book and then developed myself without anybody's personal help.

So these are proven methods which will help you to learn not only Gujarati but any new language.
You can surely try.

1) Learn Grammar.
Read the blog at least once so that you will get to know different grammar rules. You may not remember everything but concepts will be at back of your mind. As and when you keep reading the blog further or reading Gujarati text elsewhere you will be able to relate concepts you had read before.

When you will frequently come across the use of these grammar rules, you will remember it.

Learning grammar alone can make you independent speaker. No matter how many ready-made sentence you read, until you understand the rule behind it you will not be able to form sentence yourself.

Few people do not like to study grammar, but they keep listening / reading the language and sense the grammar. This is the way a baby learns mother tongue without formally knowing grammar rules.

Whatever approach suits you; but learn grammar.

2) Watch Gujarati news channel.
Read or listen news in any language you know, and then watch same news in Gujarati.
As you already know the news, listening it again in Gujarati will be easy to understand it. You can relate the words. Thus learn new words.
In news channels formal Gujarati language is used so it will be easy to understand.

3) Start reading newspaper.
It has same benefit as watching news channel. It has formal language and news being knows you can relate to text faster.

4) Buy dictionaries.
Buy 2 dictionaries English-Gujarati and Gujarati-English. This will be helpful while reading newspaper. Without dictionaries you can not increase your vocabulary.
Dictionaries are available online as well.

5) Then start watching Gujarati TV serials ( daily-soaps :) )
Then start viewing daily Gujarati serials on Gujarati channels. These serials have conversations happening in your day to day life. This is very useful.
Go for serious nature programs.
Do not try Gujarati movies initially. Also Do not go for comedy serials/dramas initially. To understand comedy, one needs to have very good knowledge of language (hidden meanings, double meanings etc. ) and social context. So comedy serials/movies will not help you initially. Rather it will discourage you as you may not be able to enjoy it.

6) Start reading Gujarati magazines

7) Unless you dare to speak you can not be confident.
Wherever possible speak in Gujarati with whatever knowledge you have. Ask other person to rectify you. Understand mistake and try again. Keep trying, and one day you will realize that you are speaking without any mistake.

8) Practice makes man perfect
As applicable in any aspect of life, this rule is valid in language learning paradigm as well.
Read more to increase vocabulary. Listen more to increase understanding capacity. Talk more to make you confident
While reading you follow your own pace. You will have time to read sentence, understand it, check new words and thus increase vocabulary.
Watching/Listening Gujarati help you increase your capacity to understand others but while listening others we tend to gloss over the details i.e. new words.
So two things help in two different ways

9) Remember Gujarati and other Indian languages have dialects. So focus on standard Gujarati first.
I think in English only pronunciation differs depending on region or country but basic grammar rules do not change.
But in India, Gujarati and all other Indian languages have dialects. Each dialect can have little different grammar rules for verb formation. Each dialect can have different set of words.
That is why you feel that native Gujarati speaker sounds different than what you have learnt.
Do not get confused. Focus on standard Gujarati. Be confident in it then you will be able to relate the dialect and understand it correctly. Even native speaker of one Gujarati dialect generally is not able to speak other dialect, though he understands it.
So be confident in Standard Gujarati, then try just understanding other dialect and you many continue using your dialect( that is standard Gujarati ) 

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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Gujarati. Learn Gujarati grammar and many aspects Gujarati language online.
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Sunday, 26 January 2014

Using "May" to express wish in Gujarati

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In English we say "May God bless you", "May he help you","May door open soon". Here we have used "may" to express wish.

In Gujarati we say such wishes by using simple present tense form of verb and without form of હોવું (hovuM)
e.g. third person form of verbs are like કરે છે(kare Che), બોલે છે(bole Che), જાય છે(jAy Che) etc.
So in sentences to express wish we use only કરે, બોલે, જાય etc.

May God bless you -> ભગવાન તમને આશિર્વાદ આપે(bhagavAn tamane AshirvAd Ape) / ભગવાન ભલું કરે (bhagavAn bhaluM kare)
May those people help you -> એ લોકો તમને મદદ કરે  (e loko tamane madad kare )

May new year turn out happy to you -> નવું સાલ/વર્ષ/વરસ તમારા માટે આનંદદાયક નીવડે. (navuM sAl/varSh/varas tamArA mATe AnaMdadAyak nIvaDe.)

( Note :- In this context, Parsi and Muslim call year as "સાલ"(sAl) and Hindu/Jain call it as as વર્ષ/વરસ (varSh/varas)

May shop open soon -> દુકાન જલદી ઊઘડે !! (dukAn jaladI UghaDe !!)
  
In Gujarati, we generally use this form only for third-person. Not with first or second person i.e. not with હું, આપણે, અમે, તું, તમે etc.So In English we can form sentence like "May you help me”. But it sounds bit irregular in Gujarati.

Wish / To wish 
"Wish" (noun)  -> ઇચ્છા (ichCA) it is feminine-singular noun. 
To wish -> ઇચ્છા હોવી (ichCA hovI)
The sentence using ઇચ્છા હોવી (ichCA hovI) is similar to saying "It is my wish that... may..."


I wish he goes to school -> It is my wish that may he go to school -> મારી આ ઇચ્છા છે કે એ નિશાળમાં જાય (mArI A ichChA Che ke e nishALamAM jAy )

He wishes Kaushik wins -> It is his wish that may Kaushik win -> એની ઇચ્છા છે કે કૌશિક જીતે (enI ichChA Che ke kaushik jIte)

Listen this video online at :-
https://youtu.be/ixA3pZSNKfk 
 


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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Gujarati. Learn Gujarati grammar and many aspects Gujarati language online.
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Phrase "To Make Someone do something" in Gujarati

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In English we use sentences like "I will make him work", "That joke made him laugh" etc.
So we use phrase here as "to make one do something".

Gujarati sentences are same as saying "I will get it done from someone". So In Gujarati we say it 
હું તેની પાસે કામ કરાવડાવીશ (huM tenI pAse kAm karAvaDAvIsh), હું તેની પાસે બોલાવડાવીશ (huM tenI pAse bolAvaDAvIsh) etc.

Here we first change the verb stem by appending આવડાવ (AvaDAv)

Original verb stem+ આવડાવ (AvaDAv) = Verb stem to be used
કર  (kar) +  આવડાવ (AvaDAv) = કરાવડા  (karAvaDAv)
હસ (has) + આવડાવ (AvaDAv)  = હસાવડા (hasAvaDAv )

If beginning letter of verb has (A) sound in it, then it is changed to (a)
ચાલ (chAl) changed to ચલ(chal) + આવડાવ (AvaDAv)  = ચલાવડા (chalAvaDAv  )
માર (mAr) changed to મર (mar) + આવડાવ (AvaDAv)  = મરાવડાવ  (marAvaDAv  )

If verb stem is single letter and has has (A) sound in it, then it is changed to (a) and (A)” of આવડાવ (AvaDAv) is also omitted
ખા (khA) changed to (kh) + વડાવ (AvaDAv)  = વડાવ  (khavaDAv  )
ગા (gA) changed to (g) + વડાવ (AvaDAv)  = વડાવ  (gavaDAv  )

In other irregular verb stems, starting “(A)” of આવડાવ (AvaDAv)  is omitted
પી (pI) + વડાવ (AvaDAv)  = પીવડાવ (pIvaDAv)
ધો(dho) + વડાવ (AvaDAv)  = ધોવડાવ (dhovaDAv)


Needless to say, form of verb follows the general rules of sentence formation. i.e. 
For present and future tense the form of  is as per subject i.e. કર્તા
For past tense it is as per object i.e. કર્મ

And we use proposition “-ની પાસે” (nI pAse) through whom activity is actually done. Examples will make it clear.

Examples :- 


I make him say the truth -> હું એની પાસે સત્ય બોલાવડાવું છું (huM enI pAse saty bolAvaDAvuM ChuM)
I made him say the truth -> મેં એની પાસે સત્ય બોલાવડાવ્યું (meM enI pAse saty bolAvaDAvyuM)
I will make him say the truth ->  હું એની પાસે સત્ય બોલાવડાવીશ (huM enI pAse saty bolAvaDAvIsh)

He made me work -> તેણે મારી પાસે કામ કરાવડાવ્યું (teNe mArI pAse kAm karAvaDAvyuM)
He makes me work -> તે મારી પાસે કામ કરાવડાવે છે (te mArI pAse kAm karAvaDAve Che)
He will make me work -> તે મારી પાસે કામ કરાવડાવશે (te mArI pAse kAm karAvaDAvashe)

Peter made Mary eat mango-> પીટરે મેરી પાસે કેરી ખવડાવી (pITare merI pAse kerI khavaDAvI )

They made us wash the one pot -> તેમણે અમારા પાસે એક વાસણ ધોવડાવ્યું (temaNe amArA pAse ek vAsaN dhovaDAvyuM)
They made us wash many pots -> તેમણે અમારા પાસે બહુ વાસણ ધોવડાવ્યાં (temaNe amArA pAse bahu vAsaN dhovaDAvyAM )





Sentence formation with  અકર્મક (akarmak) verbs
Consider અકર્મક (akarmak) verbs e.g. to come, to go , to sit etc. 
And consider sentences -> "I will get it gone by him"; "I will get it come by him"; "I will get it sat by him".  All these sound awkward.
So as you would have guessed such sentences can not be prepared in Gujarati in above way. So you will use alternate ways 

I will make him go -> 
I will try so that he will go ->
હું એવો પ્રયત્ન કરીશ કે એ જશે (huM evo prayatn karIsh ke e jashe)

OR 
I will do such a way, so that he will have to go  ->
હું એવું કરીશ કે એને જવું પડશે  (huM evuM karIsh ke ene javuM paDashe)
etc.


Listen this lesson online at :-
https://youtu.be/3q5P8OewjnQ


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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Gujarati. Learn Gujarati grammar and many aspects Gujarati language online.
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Friday, 17 January 2014

Relations in Gujarati

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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Gujarati. Learn Gujarati grammar and many aspects Gujarati language online.
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Relation in English
Relation in Gujarati
Relation
સંબંધ / સગપણ 
(saMbaMdh / sagapaN  )
Relative
સંબંધી  (saMbaMdhI  ) /સગો (sago)
Self
જાત / પોતે (jAt / pote )
Mother
મા / બા (mA / bA )
Father
બાપ / પિતા / બાપુ
(bAp / pitA / bApu )
Brother
ભાઈ (bhAI )
Sister
બહેન (bahen )
Direct brother
સગા ભાઈ (sagA bhAI )
Direct sister
સગી બહેન (sagI bahen )
Grand father 
(father's father)
દાદા (dAdA )
Grand mother (father's mother)
દાદી (dAdI )
Grand father (mother's  father)
નાના (nAnA )
Grand mother (mother's mother)
નાની (nAnI )
Father's brother
કાકા (kAkA )
Father's brother's wife
કાકી (kAkI )
Mother's brother
મામા (mAmA )
Mother's brother's wife
મામી (mAmI )
Father's sister
ફોઈ (phoI )
Father's sister's husband
ફુઆ (phuA )
Mother's sister
માસી (mAsI )
Mother's sister's husband
માસા (mAsA )
Great grand father
પરદાદા (paradAdA )

પરનાના (paranAnA )
Wife
પત્ની (patnI )
Husband
પતિ (pati )
Daughter
દીકરી (dIkarI )
Son
દીકરો (dIkaro )
Son's wife / Daughter in law
વહુ (vahu )
Daughter's husband / Son in law
જમાઈ (jamAI )
Father in law
સસરો (sasaro )
Mother in law
સાસુ (sAsu )
Grandson
પૌત્ર (pautr )
Grand daughter
પૌત્રી (pautrI )
Husband's brother
દિયર (diyar )
Husband's sister
નણંદ(naNaMd) 
Wife's brother
સાળો (sALo )
Wife's sister
સાળી (sALI )
Sister's husband
બનેવી (banevI )
Sister's son
ભાણેજ / ભાણો
(bhANej / bhANo )
Sister's daughter
ભાણેજી / ભાણી
(bhANejI / bhANI )
Brother's wife
ભાભી (bhAbhI ) 
Brother's son
ભત્રીજો (bhatrIjo )
Brother's daughter
ભત્રીજી (bhatrIjI )
friend (boy)
મિત્ર (mitr )
friend (girl)
મૈત્રિણી (maitriNI )
neighbour
પાડોશી (pADoshI )
Bride
નવવધૂ / નવોઢા
(navavadhU / navoDhA )
Bridegroom
વર  (var  )
Adopted
દત્તક (dattak )
Heir
વારસ (vAras )

Cousin brother is called ભાઈ(bhAI)
Cousin sister is called બહેન(bahen)
You can specify relation e.g. 
cousin (Your father's brother's son) -> કાકાનો દીકરો ભાઈ (kAkAno dIkaro bhAI )
cousin (Your father's brother's daughter) -> કાકાની દીકરી બહેન (kAkAnI dIkarI bahen )

cousin (Your mother's brother's son) -> મામાનો દીકરો ભાઈ (mAmAno dIkaro bhAI )
cousin (Your mother's brother's daughter) -> મામાની દીકરી બહેન (mAmAnI dIkarI bahen )

cousin (Your father's sister's son) -> ફોઈનો દીકરો ભાઈ (phoIno dIkaro bhAI )
cousin (Your father's sister's daughter) -> ફોઈની દીકરી બહેન (phoInI dIkarI bahen )

cousin (Your mother's sister's son) -> 
માસીનો દીકરો ભાઈ (mAsIno dIkaro bhAI ) OR    મસિયાઈ ભાઈ (masiyAI bhAI)
cousin (Your mother's sister's daughter) -> 
માસીની દીકરી બહેન (mAsInI dIkarI bahen ) OR મસિયાઈ બહેન (masiyAI bahen )

Listen this lesson online at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B42HDIHNqDw


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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Gujarati. Learn Gujarati grammar and many aspects Gujarati language online.
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