Friday, 22 November 2013

Present-Past-Future Perfect Tense in Gujarati

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Present and Past perfect tense :- 
Before you go ahead learning “Perfect tense” make sure you have understood “simple past tense” correctly.
Because these tense use sentences from “simple past” and just add form of “to Be” to make it perfect.

For સકર્મક(sakarmak) veb i.e. the verb which requires noun, the form of To Be i.e. હોવું(hovuM) is decided based on noun. 

For અકર્મક(akarmak) veb i.e. the verb which does NOT require noun, the form of To Be i.e. હોવું(hovuM) is decided based on કર્તા(kartA) i.e. doer of action.  

So sentence structure in Present Perfect and Past Perfect is 


Sentence in simple past tense  
form of to Be i.e. હોવું(hovuM) 
         

સકર્મક(sakarmak) veb i.e. the verb which requires noun,

Sentence in simple past tense  
form of to Be i.e. હોવું(hovuM) as per gender and multiplicity of noun and tense

Take sentence "I ate pickle". In Gujarati it is "મેં અથાણું ખાધું"(meM athANuM khAdhuM)
અથાણું is neuter-singular.
So as see in previous lessons, 
form of હોવું(hovuM) 
in past tense is હતું ( hatuM) 
in present tense is છે ( Che )

So combined sentence will be :- 
I had eaten pickle -> મેં અથાણું ખાધું હતું(meM athANuM khAdhuM hatuM
I have eaten pickle -> મેં અથાણું ખાધું છે (meM athANuM khAdhuM Che )

Now it being સકર્મક(sakarmak) verb, verb formation sentence will remain same irrespective of doer of action


I/You/He/They had eaten pickle -> મેં/તેં/એણે/તેમણે અથાણું ખાધું હતું(meM/teM/eNe/temaNE athANuM khAdhuM hatuM)

I/You/He/They have eaten pickle -> મેં/તેં/એણે/તેમણે અથાણું ખાધું છે meM/teM/eNe/temaNE athANuM khAdhuM Che )

Other examples
I opened box -> મેં પેટી ખોલી (meM peTI kholI) 

I/You/He/They had opened box -> મેં/તેં/એણે/તેમણે પેટી ખોલી હતી (meM peTI kholI hatI) 
I/You/He/They have opened box -> મેં/તેં/એણે/તેમણે પેટી ખોલી છે  (meM peTI kholI Che) 



અકર્મક(akarmak) veb i.e. the verb which does not require noun,

Sentence in simple past tense  
form of to Be i.e. હોવું(hovuM) as per gender and multiplicity of doer of action and tense


I(masc.) spoke -> હું બોલ્યો ( huM bolyo ) 

here કર્તા(kartA) is masculine singular.
So as seen in previous lessons, 
form of હોવું(hovuM) 
in past tense is હતો ( hato )
in present tense is છું ( ChuM )


I had spoken  -> હું બોલ્યો હતો ( huM bolyo hato ) 
I have spoken -> હું બોલ્યો છું ( huM bolyo ChuM ) 


Similarly, 
You(girl) laughed -> તું હસી  ( tuM hasI  )

You(girl) had laughed -> તું હસી હતી ( tuM hasI  hatI)
You(girl) have laughed -> તું હસી છે ( tuM hasI  Che)

Future Perfect tense  In future perfect tense generally little different structure is used


main verb+ ઈ(I)
form of ચુકવું(chukavuM) as in simple past tense 

form of to Be i.e. હોવું(hovuM) as per gender and multiplicity of doer of action and tense
 બોલી (bolI)
 ચુક્યો(chukyo)
 હોઈશ(hoIsh)

I(masc.) will have spoken -> હું બોલી ચુક્યો હોઈશ ( huM bolI chukyo hoIsh ) 
You(girl) will have laughed -> તું હસી ચુકી હોઈશ ( tuM hasI ચુકી  hoIsh )
He will have danced -> એ નાચી ચુક્યો હશે  ( e nAchI chukyo hashe  )
Tree will have moved -> ઝાડ હલી ચુક્યું હશે  ( jhAD halI chukyuM hashe  )

Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6P4qehAsQNY




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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Gujarati. Learn Gujarati grammar and many aspects Gujarati language online.
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