Present-Past-Future Perfect Tense in Gujarati

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Present and Past perfect tense :- 
Before you go ahead learning “Perfect tense” make sure you have understood “simple past tense” correctly.
Because these tense use sentences from “simple past” and just add form of “to Be” to make it perfect.

For સકર્મક(sakarmak) veb i.e. the verb which requires noun, the form of To Be i.e. હોવું(hovuM) is decided based on noun. 

For અકર્મક(akarmak) veb i.e. the verb which does NOT require noun, the form of To Be i.e. હોવું(hovuM) is decided based on કર્તા(kartA) i.e. doer of action.  

So sentence structure in Present Perfect and Past Perfect is 


Sentence in simple past tense  
form of to Be i.e. હોવું(hovuM) 
         

સકર્મક(sakarmak) veb i.e. the verb which requires noun,

Sentence in simple past tense  
form of to Be i.e. હોવું(hovuM) as per gender and multiplicity of noun and tense

Take sentence "I ate pickle". In Gujarati it is "મેં અથાણું ખાધું"(meM athANuM khAdhuM)
અથાણું is neuter-singular.
So as see in previous lessons, 
form of હોવું(hovuM) 
in past tense is હતું ( hatuM) 
in present tense is છે ( Che )

So combined sentence will be :- 
I had eaten pickle -> મેં અથાણું ખાધું હતું(meM athANuM khAdhuM hatuM
I have eaten pickle -> મેં અથાણું ખાધું છે (meM athANuM khAdhuM Che )

Now it being સકર્મક(sakarmak) verb, verb formation sentence will remain same irrespective of doer of action


I/You/He/They had eaten pickle -> મેં/તેં/એણે/તેમણે અથાણું ખાધું હતું(meM/teM/eNe/temaNE athANuM khAdhuM hatuM)

I/You/He/They have eaten pickle -> મેં/તેં/એણે/તેમણે અથાણું ખાધું છે meM/teM/eNe/temaNE athANuM khAdhuM Che )

Other examples
I opened box -> મેં પેટી ખોલી (meM peTI kholI) 

I/You/He/They had opened box -> મેં/તેં/એણે/તેમણે પેટી ખોલી હતી (meM peTI kholI hatI) 
I/You/He/They have opened box -> મેં/તેં/એણે/તેમણે પેટી ખોલી છે  (meM peTI kholI Che) 

Negative sentences will be used similarly, using negative form of verb  હોવું(hovuM) 

I/You/He/They had opened box -> મેં/તેં/એણે/તેમણે પેટી ખોલી નહોતી (meM peTI kholI nahotI) 
I/You/He/They have opened box -> મેં/તેં/એણે/તેમણે પેટી ખોલી નથી  (meM peTI kholI Che) 


You must have noticed that negative sentence in present perfect is same as negative in simple past tense.



અકર્મક(akarmak) verb i.e. the verb which does not require noun,

Sentence in simple past tense  
form of to Be i.e. હોવું(hovuM) as per gender and multiplicity of doer of action and tense


I(masc.) spoke -> હું બોલ્યો ( huM bolyo ) 

here કર્તા(kartA) is masculine singular.
So as seen in previous lessons, 
form of હોવું(hovuM) 
in past tense is હતો ( hato )
in present tense is છું ( ChuM )


I had spoken  -> હું બોલ્યો હતો ( huM bolyo hato ) 
I have spoken -> હું બોલ્યો છું ( huM bolyo ChuM ) 


Similarly, 
You(girl) laughed -> તું હસી  ( tuM hasI  )

You(girl) had laughed -> તું હસી હતી ( tuM hasI  hatI)
You(girl) have laughed -> તું હસી છે ( tuM hasI  Che)

Negative sentences will be used similarly, using negative form of verb  હોવું(hovuM) 

I had not spoken  -> હું બોલ્યો નહોતો ( huM bolyo nahoto ) 

I have not spoken -> હું બોલ્યો નથી ( huM bolyo nathI) 
You(girl) had not laughed -> તું હસી નહોતી ( tuM hasI  nahotI )

You(girl) have not laughed -> તું હસી નથી ( tuM hasI  nathI)


Future Perfect tense 
Future perfect tense and its negative form is not very commonly used in Gujarati. Unlike a very fixed formula, it is created using phases or supporting verbs. So there can be different ways to convey same meaning. I have tried to explain few structures. But more you read Gujarati, you will notice nuances about there use. So just keep these constructs in mind. Do not be much worried about creating them as of now.

One of the way using supporting verb ચુકવું(chukavuM).
main verb+ ઈ(I)
form of ચુકવું(chukavuM) as in simple past tense 

form of to Be i.e. હોવું(hovuM) as per gender and multiplicity of doer of action and tense
 બોલી (bolI)
 ચુક્યો(chukyo)
 હોઈશ(hoIsh)

I(masc.) will have spoken -> હું બોલી ચુક્યો હોઈશ ( huM bolI chukyo hoIsh ) 
You(girl) will have laughed -> તું હસી ચુકી હોઈશ ( tuM hasI ચુકી  hoIsh )
He will have danced -> એ નાચી ચુક્યો હશે  ( e nAchI chukyo hashe  )
Tree will have moved -> ઝાડ હલી ચુક્યું હશે  ( jhAD halI chukyuM hashe )

I(masc.) will not have spoken -> હું બોલી ચુક્યો નહિં હોઉં (huM bolI chukyo nahiM houM) 
You(girl) will not have laughed -> તું હસી ચુકી નહિં હોય (tuM hasI chukI nahiM hoy)
He will not have danced -> એ નાચી ચુક્યો નહિં હોય ( e nAchI chukyo nahiM hoy)

Tree will not have moved -> ઝાડ હલી ચુક્યું નહિં હોય ( jhAD halI chukyuM nahiM hoy)

Other supporting verb is લેવું(levuM). Which is generally used with સકર્મક(sakarmak) verbs.


Subject form in past tense
main verb+ ઈ(I)
form of લેવું(levuM) as in simple past tense and as per gender and multiplicity of object
form of to Be i.e. હોવું(hovuM) as per gender and multiplicity of object and future tense
મેં (meM)
 ખાઈ (khAI)
 લીધો(lIdho)
હશે  (hashe)

I will have taken lunch - મેં જમી લીધું હશે  (meM jamI lIdhuM hashe )
I will not have taken lunch - મેં જમી લીધું નહિં હોય  (meM jamI lIdhuM nahiM hoy)

They will have watched movie by then - તેમણે મૂવ્હી જોઈ લીધી હશે (temaNe mUvhI joI lIdhI hashe)
They will not have watched movie by then - તેમણે મૂવ્હી જોઈ લીધી નહિં હોય (temaNe mUvhI joI lIdhI hashe)


The verb જવું(javuM) can be seen when talking about movement.

We will have reached there - અમેં ત્યાં પહોંચી ગયા હશું (ameM tyAM pahoMchI gayA hashuM)
He will have come by 9 o'clock - 9 વાગ્યા સુધી એ આવી ગયો હશે (9 vAgyA sudhI e AvI gayo hashe)



Listen examples in this lesson at
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6P4qehAsQNY





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Note :-  Right hand side of the blog shows "Blog Archive". Expand it fully to see whole list of posts to Learn Gujarati. Learn Gujarati grammar and many aspects Gujarati language online.
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